Find important literature on silence, silence and culture, and cross-cultural research in general.

The following are classical articles that introduced the topic of silence to organization studies and management research:

Morrison, E. W., & Milliken, F. J. (2000). Organizational silence: A barrier
to change and development in a pluralistic world. Academy of Management
Review, 25
, 706–725.

Pinder, C. C., & Harlos, K. P. (2001). Employee silence: Quiescence and
acquiescence as responses to perceived injustice. In Research in Personnel
and Human Resources Management, 20
, 331–369. Elsevier.

van Dyne, L., Ang, S., & Botero, I. C. (2003). Conceptualizing employee
silence and employee voice as multidimensional constructs. Journal of
Management Studies, 40
, 1359–1392.

The first large-scale international study on silence is

Knoll, M., Götz, M., Adriasola, E., Al-Atwi, A.A., Arenas, A., Atitsogbe, K.A., Barrett, S., Bhattacharjee, A., Blanco, N.D., Bogilović, S., Bollmann, G., Bosak, J., Bulut, C., Carter, M., Cerne, M., Chui, S., Di Marco, D., Duden, G., Elsey, V., Fujimura, M., Gatti, P., Ghislieri, C., Giessner, S., Hino, K., Hofmans, J., Jønsson, T.S., Kazimna, P., Lowe, K.P., Malagon Peren, J., Mohebbi, H., Montgomery, A., Monzani, L., Nederveen Pieterse, A., Ngoma, M., O’Shea, D., Lundsgaard Ottsen, C., Ozeren, E., Pickett, J.L., Rangkuti, A.A., Retowski, S., Sattari Ardabili, F., Shaukat, R., Silva, S.A., Šimunić, A., Steffens, N.K., Sultanova, F., Szücs, D., Tavares, S.M., Tipandjan, A., van Dick, R., Vasiljevic, D., Wong, S.I., & Zacher, H. (2021). International differences in employee silence motives: Scale validation, prevalence, and relationships with culture characteristics across 33 countries. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 42, 619–648.


Here are some articles on silence in specific regions:

Covarrubias, P. (2007). (Un)biased in Western theory: Generative silence
in American Indian communication. Communication Monographs, 74,

Sheriff, R. E. (2000). Exposing silence as cultural censorship: A Brazilian
case. American Anthropologist, 102, 114–132.

Wilkinson, A., Sun, J.-M., & Mowbray, P.K. (2020). Special issue on "Employee voice in the Asia Pacific" in The Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 58(4)

Here are some overview articles on cultural research that we found helpful

Chao, G. T., & Moon, H. (2005). The Cultural Mosaic: A metatheory
for understanding the complexity of culture. Journal of Applied
Psychology, 90
, 1128–1140.

Dorfman, P., Javidan, M., Hanges, P., Dastmalchian, A., & House, R. (2012).
GLOBE: A twenty year journey into the intriguing world of culture and
leadership. Journal of World Business, 47, 504–518.

Gelfand, M. J., Aycan, Z., Erez, M., & Leung, K. (2017). Cross-cultural industrial
organizational psychology and organizational behavior: A
hundred-year journey. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102, 1–16.

Peterson, M. F., & Barreto, T. S. (2014). The like it or not proposition:
Implications of societal characteristics for the cultural expertise and
personal values of organization members. Journal of Organizational
Behavior, 35
, 1134–1152.

Spector, P. E., Liu, C., & Sanchez, J. I. (2015). Methodological and substantive
issues in conducting multinational and cross-cultural research.
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior,
, 101–131.

Triandis, H. C. (1996). The psychological measurement of cultural syndromes.
American Psychologist, 51, 407–415.

Tsui, A. S., Nifadkar, S. S., & Ou, A. Y. (2007). Cross-national, cross-cultural
organizational behavior research: Advances, gaps, and recommendations.
Journal of Management, 33, 426–478.

Tung, R. L., & Stahl, G. K. (2018). The tortuous evolution of the role of culture
in IB research: What we know, what we don't know, and where
we are headed. Journal of International Business Studies, 49,

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